The Congressional Accountability Act (CAA) was in enacted in 1995. The CAA currently applies thirteen civil rights, labor, and workplace safety & health laws to the United States Congress and its Legislative Branch agencies, requiring them to follow many of the same employment and workplace laws applied to the private and public sectors.

The CAA established the Office of Compliance (OOC) as an independent, non-partisan agency to administer and enforce these laws. The OOC operates and ensures the integrity of an administrative dispute resolution system to resolve disputes and complaints brought by Congressional employees under the CAA; carries out an education and outreach program for Congressional Members, employing offices, and Congressional employees to assist them in understanding their rights and obligations under the CAA; and advises Congress on needed changes to the CAA. The General Counsel of the OOC has independent investigatory and enforcement discretion for certain violations of the CAA by Congress and its employing agencies.