The Congressional Accountability Act (CAA), enacted in 1995, currently applies thirteen civil rights, labor, and workplace safety and health laws to the United States Congress and its Legislative Branch agencies.

The CAA established the Office of Compliance (OOC) as an independent, non-partisan agency to administer and enforce the laws incorporated in the CAA. The OOC operates an administrative dispute resolution system to resolve complaints brought under the CAA; carries out an education and outreach program for Congressional Members, employing offices, and employees; and advises Congress on needed changes to the CAA. The General Counsel of the OOC has independent investigatory and enforcement discretion for certain violations of the CAA.